2182

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Keithley 

6220/2182A

12 tháng

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Mô tả

 

6220

Tổng quan thiết bị:

The need for precision, low current sourcing. Device testing and characterization for today’s very small and power-efficient electronics requires sourcing low current levels, which demands the use of a precision, low current source. Lower stimulus currents produce lower – and harder to measure – voltages across the device. Combining the Model 6220 DC Current Source or Model 6221 AC and DC Current Source with a Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter makes it possible to address both of these challenges.

Differential Conductance. Differential conductance measurements are among the most important and critical measurements made on non-linear tunneling devices and on low temperature devices. Mathematically, differential conductance is the derivative of a device’s I-V curve. The Model 6220 or 6221, combined with the Model 2182A, is the industry’s most complete solution for differential conductance measurements. Together, these instruments are also the fastest solution available, providing 10x the speed and significantly lower noise than other options. Data can be obtained in a single measurement pass, rather than by averaging the result of multiple sweeps, which is both time-consuming and prone to error. The Model 622X and Model 2182A are also easy to use because the combination can be treated as a single instrument. Their simple connections eliminate the isolation and noise current problems that plague other solutions.

Keithley 6220 DC Precision Current Source

The Model 6220 DC Current Source and Model 6221 AC and DC Current Source combine ease of use with exceptionally low current noise. Low current sourcing is critical to applications in test environments ranging from R&D to production, especially in the semiconductor, nanotechnology, and super-conductor industries. High sourcing accuracy and built-in control functions make the Models 6220 and 6221 ideal for applications like Hall measurements, resistance measurements using delta mode, pulsed measurements, and differential conductance measurements.

The need for precision, low current sourcing. Device testing and characterization for today’s very small and power-efficient electronics requires sourcing low current levels, which demands the use of a precision, low current source. Lower stimulus currents produce lower and harder to measure voltages across the device. Combining the Model 6220 or 6221 with a Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter makes it possible to address both of these challenges.

AC current source and current source waveform generator. The Model 6221 is the only low current AC source on the market. Before its introduction, researchers and engineers were forced to build their own AC current sources. This cost-effective source provides better accuracy, consistency, reliability, and robustness than “home-made” solutions. The Model 6221 is also the only commercially available current source waveform generator, which greatly simplifies creating and outputting complex waveforms.

Simple programming. Both current sources are fully programmable via the front panel controls or from an external controller via RS-232 or GPIB interfaces; the Model 6221 also features an Ethernet interface for remote control from anywhere there’s an Ethernet connection. Both instruments can source DC currents from 100fA to 105mA; the Model 6221 can also source AC currents from 4pA to 210mA peak to peak. The output voltage compliance of either source can be set from 0.1V to 105V in 10mV steps. Voltage compliance (which limits the amount of voltage applied when sourcing a current) is critical for applications in which overvoltages could damage the device under test (DUT).

Drop-in replacement for the Model 220  current source. These instruments build upon Keithley’s popular Model 220 Programmable Current Source; a Model 220 emulation mode makes it easy to replace a Model 220 with a Model 6220/6221 in an existing application with-out rewriting the control code.

Define and execute current ramps easily. Both the Models 6220 and 6221 offer tools for defining current ramps and stepping through predefined sequences of up to 65,536 output values using a trigger or a timer. Both sources support linear, logarithmic, and custom sweeps.

The Model 6221’s combination of high source resolution and megahertz update rates makes it capable of emulating high fidelity current signals that are indistinguishable from analog current ramps.

Free Instrument Control Example Start-up Software

The instrument control example software available for the sources simplifies both performing basic sourcing tasks and coordinating complex measurement functions with the Keithley Model 2182A. The software, developed in the LabVIEW ®  programming environment, includes a step-by-step measurement guide that helps users set up their instruments and make proper connections, as well as program basic sourcing functions. The advanced tools in the package support delta mode, differential conductance, and pulse mode measurements. From this package, users can print out the instrument commands for any of the pre-programmed functions, which provides a starting point for incorporating these functions into customized applications.

Differential Conductance

Differential conductance measurements are among the most important and critical measurements made on non-linear tunneling devices and on low temperature devices. Mathematically, differential conductance is the derivative of a device’s I-V curve. The Model 6220 or 6221, combined with the Model 2182A Nano voltmeter, is the industry’s most complete solution for differential conductance measurements. Together, these instruments are also the fastest solution available, providing 10× the speed and significantly lower noise than other options. Data can be obtained in a single measurement pass, rather than by averaging the result of multiple sweeps, which is both time-consuming and prone to error. The Model 622X and Model 2182A are also easy to use because the combination can be treated as a single instrument. Their simple connections eliminate the isolation and noise current problems that plague other solutions.

Figure 1. Perform, analyze, and display differential conductance measurements.
Delta Mode

Keithley originally developed the delta mode method for making low noise measurements of voltages and resistances for use with the Model 2182 Nanovoltmeter and a triggerable external current source. Essentially, the delta mode automatically triggers the current source to alternate the signal polarity, then triggers a nanovoltmeter reading at each polarity. This current reversal technique cancels out any constant thermoelectric offsets, ensuring the results reflect the true value of the voltage.

This same basic technique has been incorporated into the Model 622X and Model 2182A delta mode, but its implementation has been dramatically enhanced and simplified. The technique can now  cancel thermoelectric offsets that drift over time, produce results in half the time of the previous technique, and allow the source to control and configure the nanovoltmeter, so setting up the  measurement takes just two key presses. The improved cancellation and higher reading rate reduces measurement noise to as  little as 1nV.

Figure 2. Delta mode offers 1000-to-1 noise reduction.

The delta mode enables measuring low voltages and resistances accurately. Once the Model 622X and the Model 2182A are connected properly, the user simply presses the current source’s Delta button, followed by the Trigger button, which starts the test. The Model 622X and the Model 2182A work together seamlessly and can be controlled via the GPIB interface (GPIB or Ethernet with the Model 6221). The free example control software available for the Model 622X includes a tutorial that “walks” users through the delta mode setup process.

Pulsed Tests

Even small amounts of heat introduced by the measurement process itself can raise the DUT’s temperature, skewing test results or even destroying the device. The Model 6221’s pulse measurement capability minimizes the amount of power dissipated into a DUT by offering maximum flexibility when making pulsed measurements, allowing users to program the optimal pulse current amplitude, pulse interval, pulse width, and other pulse parameters.

The Model 6221 makes short pulses (and reductions in heat dissipation) possible with microsecond rise times on all ranges. The Model 6221/2182A combination synchronizes the pulse and measurement. a measurement can begin as soon as 16µs after the Model 6221 applies the pulse. The entire pulse, including a complete nanovolt measurement, can be as short as 50µs. Line synchronization between the Model 6221 and Model 2182A eliminates power line related noise.

Standard and Arbitrary Waveform Generator

The Model 6221 is the only low current AC source on the market. It can be programmed to generate both basic waveforms (sine, square, triangle, and ramp) and customizable waveforms with an arbitrary waveform generator (ARB) that supports defining waveforms point by point. It can generate waveforms at frequencies ranging from 1mHz to 100kHz at an output update rate of 10 megasamples/ second.

Performance Superior to AC Resistance Bridges and Lock-In Amplifiers

The Model 622X/2182A combination provides many advantages over AC resistance bridges and lock-in amplifiers, including lower noise, lower current sourcing, lower voltage measurements, less power dissipation into DUTs, and lower cost. It also eliminates the need for a current  pre-amplifier.

The Model 6221 can also expand the capabilities of lock-in amplifiers in applications that already employ them. For example, its clean signals and its output synchronization signal make it an ideal output source for lock-in applications such as measuring second and third harmonic device response.

Figure 4. The Model 6221 and the free example start-up control software make it easy to create complex waveforms by adding, multiplying, stringing together, or applying filters to standard wave shapes.
Models 6220 and 6221 vs. Homemade Current Sources

Many researchers and engineers who need a current source attempt to get by with a voltage source and series resistor instead. This is often the case when an AC current is needed. This is because, until the introduction of the Model 6220/6221, no AC current sources were available on the market. However, homemade current sources have several disadvantages vs. true current sources:

  • Homemade Current Sources Don’t Have Voltage Compliance. You may want to be sure the voltage at the terminals of your homemade “current source” never exceeds a certain limit (for example, 1–2V in the case of many optoelectronic devices). The most straightforward way to accomplish this is to reduce the voltage source to that level. This requires the series resistor to be reduced to attain the desired current. If you want to program a different current, you must change the resistor while the voltage is held constant! Another possibility is to place a protection circuit in parallel with the DUT. These do not have precise voltage control and always act as a parallel device, stealing some of the programmed current intended for the DUT.
  • Homemade Current Sources Can’t Have Predictable Output. With a homemade “current source” made of a voltage source and series resistor, the impedance of the DUT forms a voltage divider. If the DUT resistance is entirely predictable, the current can be known, but if the DUT resistance is unknown or changes, as most devices do, then the current isn’t a simple function of the voltage applied. The best way to make the source predictable is to use a very high value series resistor (and accordingly high voltage source), which is in direct contradiction with the need for compliance.
    While it’s possible to know (if not control) the actual current coming from such an unpredictable source, this also comes at a cost. This can be done with a supplemental measurement of the current, such as using a voltmeter to measure the voltage drop across the series resistor. This measure- ment can be used as feedback to alter the voltage source or simply recorded. Either way, it requires additional equipment, which adds complexity or error. To make matters worse, if the homemade current source is made to be moderately predict- able by using a large series resistor, this readback would require using an electrom- eter to ensure accuracy.

APPLICATIONS

  • Nanotechnology
    • Differential conductance
    • Pulsed sourcing and resistance
  • Optoelectronics
    • Pulsed I-V
  • Replacement for AC resistance bridges (when used with Model 2182A)
    • Measuring resistance with low power
  • Replacement for lock-in amplifiers (when used with Model 2182A)
    • Measuring resistance with low noise

Keithley 2182A Digital Nanovoltmeter & Low Voltage Meters

The two-channel Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter is optimized for making stable, low noise voltage measurements and for characterizing low resistance materials and devices reliably and repeatably. It provides higher measurement speed and significantly better noise performance than alternative low voltage measurement solutions.

The Model 2182A represents the next step forward in Keithley nanovoltmeter technology, replacing the original Model 2182 and offering enhanced capabilities including pulse capability, lower measurement noise, faster current reversals, and a simplified delta mode for making resistance measurements in combination with a reversing current source, such as the Model 6220 or 6221.

Flexible, Effective Speed/Noise Trade-offs

The Model 2182A makes it easy to choose the best speed/filter combination for a particular application’s response time and noise level requirements. The ability to select from a wide range of response times allows optimizing speed/noise trade-offs. Low noise levels are assured over a wide range of useful response times, e.g., 15nV p-p noise at 1s and 40-50nV p-p noise at 60ms are typical. Figure 1illustrates the Model 2182A’s noise performance.

Figure 1. Compare the Model 2182A’s DC noise performance with a nanovolt/micro-ohm-meter’s. All the data shown was taken at 10 readings per second with a low thermal short applied to the input.

Reliable Results

Power line noise can compromise measurement accuracy significantly at the nanovolt level. The Model 2182A reduces this interference by synchronizing its measurement cycle to line, which minimizes variations due to readings that begin at different phases of the line cycle. The result is exceptionally high immunity to line interference with little or no shielding and filtering required.

Optimized for Use with Model 6220/6221 Current Sources

Device test and characterization for today’s very small and power-efficient electronics requires sourcing low current levels, which demands the use of a precision, low current source. Lower stimulus currents produce lower—and harder to measure—voltages across the devices. Linking the Model 2182A Nanovoltmeter with a Model 6220 or 6221 Current Source makes it possible to address both of these challenges in one easy-to-use configuration.

When connected, the Model 2182A and Model 6220 or 6221 can be operated like a single instrument. Their simple connections eliminate the isolation and noise current problems that plague other solutions. The Model 2182A/622X combination allows making delta mode and differential conductance measurements faster and with less noise than the original Model 2182 design allowed. The Model 2182A will also work together with the Model 6221 to make pulse-mode measurements.

The 2182A/622X combination is ideal for a variety of applications, including resistance measurements, pulsed I-V measurements, and differential conductance measurements, providing significant advantages over earlier solutions like lock-in amplifiers or AC resistance bridges. The 2182A/622X combination is also well suited for many nanotechnology applications because it can measure resistance without dissipating much power into the device under test (DUT), which would otherwise invalidate results or even destroy the DUT.

An Easy-to-Use Delta Mode

Keithley originally created the delta mode method for measuring voltage and resistance for the Model 2182 and a triggerable external current source, such as the Model 2400 SourceMeter instrument. Basically, the delta mode automatically triggers the current source to alternate the signal polarity, and then triggers a nanovoltmeter reading at each polarity. This current reversal technique cancels out

Figure 2. Results from a Model 2182A/6220 using the delta mode to measure a 10mΩ resistor with a 20µA test current. The free Model 6220/6221 instrument control example start-up software used here can be downloaded from www.keithley.com.

Figure 3. It’s simple to connect the Model 2182A to the Model 6220 or 6221 to make a variety of measurements. The instrument control example start-up software available for the Model 622X current sources includes a step-by-step guide to setting up the instrumentation and making proper connections.

any constant thermoelectric offsets, so the results reflect the true value of the voltage being measured. The improved delta mode for the Model 2182A and the Model 622X current sources uses the same basic technique, but the way in which it’s implemented has been simplified dramatically. The new technique can cancel thermoelectric offsets that drift over time (not just static offsets), produces results in half the time of the original technique, and allows the current source to control and configure the Model 2182A. Two key presses are all that’s required to set up the measurement. The improved cancellation and higher reading rates reduce measurement noise to as little as 1nV.

Differential Conductance Measurements

Characterizing non-linear tunneling devices and low temperature devices often requires measuring differential conductance (the derivative of a device’s I-V curve). When used with a Model 622X current source, the Model 2182A is the industry’s fastest, most complete solution for differential conductance measurements, providing 10X the speed and significantly lower noise than other instrumentation options. There’s no need to average the results of multiple sweeps, because data can be obtained in a single measurement pass, reducing test time and minimizing the potential for measurement error.

Pulsed Testing with the Model 6221

When measuring small devices, introducing even tiny amounts of heat to the DUT can raise its temperature, skewing test results or even destroying the device. When used with the Model 2182A, the Model 6221’s pulse capability minimizes the amount of power dissipated into a DUT. The Model 2182A/6221 combination synchronizes the pulse and measurement. A measurement can begin as soon as 16µs after the Model 6221 applies the pulse. The entire pulse, including a complete nanovolt measurement, can be as short as 50µs.

In the delta, differential conductance, and pulse modes, The Model 2182A produces virtually no transient currents, so it’s ideal for characterizing devices that can be easily disrupted by current spikes (see Figure 4).

Figure 4. The Model 2182A produces the lowest transient currents of any nanovoltmeter available.

Metrology Applications

The Model 2182A combines the accuracy of a digital multimeter with low noise at high speeds for high-precision metrology applications. Its low noise, high signal observation time, fast measurement rates, and 2ppm accuracy provide the most cost-effective meter available today for applications such as intercomparison of voltage standards and direct measurements of resistance standards.

Nanotechnology Applications

The Model 2182A combined with the Model 622X current source or Series 2400 SourceMeter ®  instrument is a highly accurate and repeatable solution for measuring resistances on carbon nanotube based materials and silicon nanowires.

Research Applications

The Model 2182A’s 1nV sensitivity, thermoelectric EMF cancellation, direct display of “true” voltage, ability to perform calculations, and high measurement speed makes it ideal for determining the characteristics of materials such as metals, low resistance filled plastics, and high and low temperature superconductors.

Figure 5. The Model 2182A’s delta mode provides extremely stable results, even in the presence of large ambient temperature changes. In this challenging example, the 200nV signal results from a 20µA current sourced by a Model 6221 through a 10mΩ test resistor.

Optional Accessory: Model 2187-4 Low Thermal Test Lead Kit

The standard cabling provided with the Model 2182A Nano volt meter and Model 622X Current Sources provides everything normally needed to connect the instruments to each other and to the DUT. The Model 2187-4 Low Thermal Test Lead Kit is required when the cabling provided may not be sufficient for specific applications, such as when the DUT has special connection requirements. The kit includes an input cable with banana terminations, banana extensions, sprung-hook clips, alligator clips, needle probes, and spade lugs to accommodate virtually any DUT. The Model 2187-4 is also helpful when the DUT has roughly 1GΩ impedance or higher. In this case, measuring with the Model 2182A directly across the DUT will lead to loading errors. The Model 2187-4 Low Thermal Test Lead Kit provides a banana cable and banana jack extender to allow the Model 2182A to connect easily to the Model 622X’s low impedance guard output, so the Model 2182A can measure the DUT voltage indirectly. This same configuration also removes the Model 2182A’s input capacitance from the DUT, so it improves device response time, which may be critical for pulsed measurements.

Figure 6. Model 2187-4 Test Lead Kit

Figure 7. Model 2182A rear panel

Applications:

  • Research
    • Determining the transition temperature of superconductive materials
    • I-V characterization of a material at a specific temperature
    • Calorimetry
    • Differential thermometry
    • Superconductivity
    • Nanomaterials
  • Metrology
    • Intercomparisons of standard cells
    • Null meter for resistance bridge measurements

 

 

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Keithley

GENERAL SPECIFICATION
COMMON MODE VOLTAGE 250V rms, DC to 60Hz
COMMON MODE ISOLATION >10 9 Ω, <2nF
SOURCE OUTPUT MODES Fixed DC level, Memory List
REMOTE INTERFACE IEEE-488 and RS-232C.
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments).
DDC (command language compatible with Keithley Model 220).
PASSWORD PROTECTION 11 characters
DIGITAL INTERFACE
Handler Interface Start of test, end of test, 3 category bits, +5V@300mA supply
Digital I/O 1 trigger input, 4 TTL/Relay Drive outputs (33V@500mA, diode clamped)
OUTPUT CONNECTIONS Teflon insulated 3-lug triax connector for output.
Banana safety jack for GUARD, OUTPUT LO.
Screw terminal for CHASSIS.
DB-9 connector for EXTERNAL TRIGGER INPUT, OUTPUT, and DIGITAL I/O.
Two position screw terminal for INTERLOCK.
INTERLOCK Maximum 10Ω external circuit impedance
POWER SUPPLY 100V to 240V rms, 50–60Hz
POWER CONSUMPTION 120VA
ENVIRONMENT
For Indoor Use Only Maximum 2000m above sea level.
Operating 0°–50°C, 70%R.H. up to 35°C. Derate 3% R.H./°C, 35°–50°C.
Storage 0–25°C to 65°C, guaranteed by design
EMC Conforms to European Union Directive 89/336/EEC, EN 61326-1.
SAFETY Conforms to European Union Directive 73/23/EEC, EN61010-1.
VIBRATION MIL-PRF-28800F Class 3, Random.
WARMUP 1 hour to rated accuracies.
Passive Cooling No fan.
DIMENSIONS
Rack Mounting 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm
deep (3.5 in. × 8.375 in. × 14.563 in.).
Bench Configuration (with handle and feet) 104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (4.125 in. × 9.375 in. × 14.563 in.).

Keithley 2182A Digital Nanovoltmeter & Low Voltage Meters

GENERAL Specification
POWER SUPPLY 00V/120V/220V/240V
LINE FREQUENCY 50Hz, 60Hz, and 400Hz, automatically sensed at power-up
POWER CONSUMPTION 22VA
MAGNETIC FIELD DENSITY 10mV range 4.0s response noise tested to 500 gauss
OPERATING ENVIRONMENT Specified for 0° to 50°C. Specified to 80% RH at 35°C
STORAGE ENVIRONMENT –40° to 70°C
EMC Complies with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC (CE marking requirement), FCC part 15 class B, CISPR 11, IEC 801-2, IEC-801-3, IEC 801-4.
SAFETY Complies with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC (low voltage directive); meets EN61010-1 safety standard. Installation category I
VIBRATION MIL-T-28800E Type III, Class 5
WARM-UP 2.5 hours to rated accuracy
DIMENSIONS Rack Mounting 89mm high × 213mm wide × 370mm deep (3.5 in × 8.375 in × 14.563 in).
Bench Configuration
(with handles and feet)
104mm high × 238mm wide × 370mm deep (4.125 in × 9.375 in ×14.563 in)
SHIPPING WEIGHT 5kg (11 lbs)
Measurement Characteristics
A/D LINEARITY ±(0.8ppm of reading + 0.5ppm of range)
FRONT AUTOZERO OFF ERROR 10mV–10V Add ±(8ppm of range + 500µV) for <10 minutes and ±1°C
NOTE Offset voltage error does not apply for Delta Mode
AUTOZERO OFF ERROR 10mV Add ±(8ppm of range + 100nV) for <10 minutes and ±1°C
100mV–100V Add ±(8ppm of range + 10µV) for <10 minutes and ±1°C
NOTE Offset voltage error does not apply for Delta Mode
INPUT IMPEDANCE 10mV–10V >10GΩ, in parallel with <1.5nF (Front Filter ON)
10mV–10V >10GΩ, in parallel with <0.5nF (Front Filter OFF)
100V 10MΩ ±1%
DC INPUT BIAS CURRENT <60pA DC at 23°C, –10V to 5V. <120pA @ 23°C, 5V to 10V
COMMON MODE CURRENT <50nA p-p at 50Hz or 60Hz
INPUT PROTECTION 150V peak to any terminal. 70V peak Channel 1 LO to Channel 2 LO
CHANNEL ISOLATION >10GΩ
EARTH ISOLATION >350V peak, >10GΩ and <150pF any terminal to earth. Add 35pF/ft with Model 2107 Low Thermal Input Cable
Analog Output
MAXIMUM OUTPUT ±1.2V
ACCURACY ±(0.1% of output + 1mV)
OUTPUT RESISTANCE 1kO ±5%
GAIN Adjustable from 10 –9 to 10 6 . With gain set to 1, a full range input will produce a 1V output
OUTPUT REL Selects the value of input that represents 0V at output. The reference value can be either programmed value or the value of the previous input
Triggering and Memory
WINDOW FILTER SENSITIVITY 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, 10%, or full scale of range (none)
READING HOLD SENSITIVITY 0.01%, 0.1%, 1%, or 10% of reading
TRIGGER DELAY 0 to 99 hours (1ms step size)
EXTERNAL TRIGGER DELAY 2ms + <1ms jitter with auto zero off, trigger delay = 0
MEMORY SIZE 1024 readings
Math Functions
Rel, Min/Max/Average/Std Dev/Peak-to-Peak (of stored reading), Limit Test, %, and mX+b with user-defined units displayed.
Remote Interface
Keithley 182 emulation.
GPIB (IEEE-488.2) and RS-232C.
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments).

 

Volts Specifications (20% over range)
CONDITIONS: 1PLC with 10 reading digital filter or 5PLC with 2 reading digital filter.
Channel 1
Range Resolution Input
Resistance
Accuracy: ±(ppm of reading + ppm of range)
(ppm = parts per million) (e.g., 10ppm = 0.001%)
Temperature
Coefficient
0°–18°C & 28°–50°C
24 Hour
TCAL ±1°C
90 Day
T CAL ±5°C
1 Year
T CAL ±5°C
2 Year
T CAL ±5°C
10.000000mV 1nV >10GΩ 20+4 40+4 50+4 60+4 (1 + 0.5)
/°C
100.00000mV 10nV >10GΩ 10+3 25+3 30+4 40+5 (1 + 0.2)
/°C
1.0000000V 100nV >10GΩ 7+2 18+2 25+2 32+3 (1 + 0.1)
/°C
10.000000V 1µV >10GΩ 2+1 18+2 25+2 32+3 (1 + 0.1)
/°C
100.00000V 10µV 10MΩ±1% 10+3 25+3 35+4 52+5 (1 + 0.5)
/°C
Channel 2
100.00000mV 10nV >10 GΩ 10+6 25+6 30+7 40+7 (1 + 1)
/°C
1.0000000V 100nV >10 GΩ 7+2 18+2 25+2 32+3 (1 + 0.5)
/°C
10.000000V 1µV >10 GΩ 2+1 18+2 25+2 32+3 (1 + 0.5)
/°C
CHANNEL 1/CHANNEL 2 RATIO For input signals =1% of the range, Ratio Accuracy = ±{[Channel 1 ppm of Reading + Channel 1 ppm of Range * (Channel 1 Range/Channel 1 Input)] + [Channel 2 ppm of Reading + Channel 2 ppm of Range * (Channel 2 Range/Channel 2 Input)]}.
DELTA (hardware-triggered coordination with Series 24XX, Series 26XXA, or Series 622X current sources for low noise R measurement) Accuracy = accuracy of selected Channel 1 range plus accuracy of I source range.
DELTA MEASUREMENT NOISE WITH 6220 or 6221 Typical 3nVrms / Hz (10mV range) 21 . 1Hz achieved with 1PLC, delay = 1ms, RPT filter = 23 (20 if 50Hz)
PULSE-MODE (WITH 6221) Line synchronized voltage measurements within current pulses from 50µs to 12ms, pulse repetition rate up to 12Hz.
PULSE MEASUREMENT NOISE (typical rms noise, R DUT <10Ω) ±(0.009ppm of range*) / meas_time / pulse_avg_count + 3nV** / (2 · meas_time · pulse_avg_count) for 10mV range.
* 0.0028ppm for the 100mV range, 0.0016ppm for ranges 1V and above.
** 8nV/ Hz for ranges above 10mV . meas_time (seconds) = pulsewidth – pulse_meas_delay in 33µs incr.

 

DC Noise Performance (DC noise expressed in volts peak-to-peak)
Response time = time required for reading to be settled within noise levels from a stepped input, 60Hz operation.
Channel 1
Response
Time
NPLC,
Filter
10 mV 100 mV Range 1 V 10 V 100 V NMRR CMRR
25.0 s 5, 75 6 nV 20 nV 75 nV 750 nV 75 µV 110 dB 140 dB
4.0 s 5, 10 15 nV 50 nV 150 nV 1.5 µV 75 µV 100 dB 140 dB
1.0 s 1, 18 25 nV 175 nV 600 nV 2.5 µV 100 µV 95 dB 140 dB
667 ms 1, 10 or 5, 2 35 nV 250 nV 650 nV 3.3 µV 150 µV 90 dB 140 dB
60 ms 1, Off 70 nV 300 nV 700 nV 6.6 µV 300 µV 60 dB 140 dB
Channel 2
25.0 s 5, 75   150 nV 200 nV 750 nV   110 dB 140 dB
4.0 s 5, 10   150 nV 200 nV 1.5 µV   100 dB 140 dB
1.0 s 1, 10 or 5, 2   175 nV 400 nV 2.5 µV   90 dB 140 dB
85 ms 1, Off   425 nV 1 µV 9.5 µV   60 dB 140 dB

 

VOLTAGE NOISE VS. SOURCE RESISTANCE
(DC noise expressed in volts peak-to-peak)
Source
Resistance
Noise Analog
Filter
Digital
Filter
0 Ω 6 nV Off 100
100 Ω 8 nV Off 100
1 kΩ 15 nV Off 100
10 kΩ 35 nV Off 100
100 kΩ 100 nV On 100
1 MΩ 350 nV On 100

 

TEMPERATURE (Thermocouples)
(Displayed in °C, °F, or K. Accuracy based on ITS-90, exclusive of thermocouple errors.)
TYPE RANGE RESOLUTION ACCURACY
90 Day/1 Year
23° ±5°C
Relative to Simulated
Reference Junction
J –200 to + 760°C 0.001 °C ±0.2 °C
K –200 to + 1372 °C 0.001 °C ±0.2 °C
N –200 to + 1300 °C 0.001 °C ±0.2 °C
T –200 to + 400 °C 0.001 °C ±0.2 °C
E –200 to + 1000 °C 0.001 °C ±0.2 °C
R 0 to + 1768 °C 0.1 °C ±0.2 °C
S 0 to + 1768 °C 0.1 °C ±0.2 °C
B +350 to + 1820 °C 0.1 °C ±0.2 °C

 

Operating Characteristics
60Hz (50Hz) Operation
Function Digits Readings/s PLCs
DCV Channel 1,
Channel 2,
Thermocouple
7.5 3 (2) 5
7.5 6 (4) 5
6.5 18 (15) 1
6.5 45 (36) 1
5.5 80 (72) 0.1
4.5 115 (105) 0.01
Channel 1/Channel 2 (Ratio),
Delta with 24XX, Scan
7.5 1.5 (1.3) 5
7.5 2.3 (2.1) 5
6.5 8.5 (7.5) 1
6.5 20 (16) 1
5.5 30 (29) 0.1
4.5 41 (40) 0.01
Delta with 622X 6.5 47 (40.0) 1

 

System Speeds
RANGE CHANGE TIME <40 ms (<50 ms)
FUNCTION CHANGE TIME <45 ms (<55 ms)
AUTORANGE TIME <60 ms (<70 ms)
ASCII READING TO RS-232 (19.2K Baud) 40/s (40/s)
MAX. INTERNAL TRIGGER RATE 120/s (120/s)
MAX. EXTERNAL TRIGGER RATE 120/s (120/s)
  • 2107-30 Low-Thermal Input Cable
    9.1m (30 ft) length input cable. Terminated with a LEMO connector on one end and four copper spade lugs on the other. 
  • 2182-KIT Low-Thermal Connector with Strain Relief
    Connector kit for building a custom input cable for the 2182A. Includes a low-thermal (EMO) connector and a strain relief.
  • 2187-4 Low Thermal Test Lead Kit
    Includes an input cable with banana terminations, banana extensions, spring-hook clips, alligator clips, needle probes, and spade lugs. 
  • 4288-1 Rack Mount Kit
    Single-unit rack mount kit. Height: 88mm (3-1/2 in) 
  • 4288-2 Rack Mount Kit
    Dual-unit rack mount kit. Height: 88mm (3-1/2 in) 
  • 7078-TRX-5 Triax Cable
    3 Slot Low Noise, 5 ft. (1.5 m)